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How To Get Into The Film Industry In Thailand

posted May 28, 2017, 1:52 PM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated May 28, 2017, 1:58 PM ]

Posted on 17. March 2016 by Robin Schroeter

thailand talent agency bangkok actors extras performers

This is an easy guide on how to get involved in the Film Industry in Thailand – and I’m talking in front of the camera. There are 9 simple steps as a guideline:

1. Get Some Good Headshots / Portfolio Shots

Picture Credit Boaz Zippor

Your face is going to sell you. To get your foot into the door of any production be it TVC, Film or TV is a good headshot of yourself. So your first step should be to get some good headshots of yourself.

A good headshot should show your natural self, best without any make up. Just the way you are, so film people can get an idea of what they can do with you.

There are quite a number of good photographers in Thailand to get you headshots.

Here is a list of photographers in Thailand that can make a portfolio shoot for you

2. Send Your Headshots / Portfolio To All Agents

This may seem counter-intuitive at first. Why would you send your portfolio to all agents and not just one?

In Thailand the industry works different than in other countries. Each of the agents in Thailand has a special relationship to some production companies. So if you don’t send your profile to all agents you may loose out on some jobs simply because you’re not being presented for the job.

3. Join Some of the Actors Facebook Pages

While there is a lot of gossip going on on the Facebook pages of the actors in Thailand, agents as well as some casting directors post jobs there. It is a good way of staying updated on what is going on.

The biggest group is definitely the Facebook Group of the Actors Association of Thailand

After that I’d recommend to join Thailand Extras, Talents, Models & Actors Community

There are several others that you can find if you look around a bit.

4. Extra, Featured Extra, Support, Main

The first 3 steps should enable you to get at least some extra jobs.

Extra jobs enable you to get a glimpse at what it is like to work on set. You’re part of a crowd. You hardly get any attention, but it’s good to get some experience as to what it is like to work on a set. Most likely you’ll work long ours (usually a minimum of 12 hours) for a minimum wage (1500-2500 Baht). You probably sit around and wait for many hours. But that is part of what working on a set is like.

After you’ve done some extra jobs you’re ready to work yourself up the ladder. You go to some castings and if you’re lucky you’ll score a featured, support or even a main part. With each step your budget, exposure and the attention you get increases. Maybe you are super talented and lucky. Maybe you score your first main part right away.

It took me 1 year of going to castings to get my first featured part. Another 6 months for my first support part and another 6 months after that for the first main.

All I’m saying is, be patient and hang on. When the time is right, you’ll get the part.

5. Join Workshops

Once you scored some jobs you should start to invest in yourself. Improve yourself, your skills.

Whatever skills you have you should hone them. Thai language skills can get you into Thai films or Thai Soaps (Lakorn’s), acting skills can get you better paid jobs, stunt / martial art skills can get you stunt jobs. If you have the looks you can go into modelling and there are people offering modelling classes as well.

Acting Workshops

Participate in workshops to improve your connections to the Film Industry in ThailandWorkshops to get into the Film Industry in Thailand

Viewpoints Workshop By Stephen Webber From New York’s Siti Company. Organized by Arts On Location

John Marengo

Probably best known English language local acting coach is John Marengo. John offers regular acting classes as well as private tutoring.

I joined one of his classes and I was happy with what I got. It helped me to get a better understanding of myself as an actor.

You can contact John here:

Gymlab Communications
Email: santiamriver@yahoo.com
Mobile: 08-9-934-8195

It is important for you as an actor to join different classes with different teachers to learn new techniques and then choose the ones that work for you.

B-Floor Last Sunday Workshops

B-floor is Thailand’s leading avant-garde theatre troupe. Part of their work involves offering regular workshops on the last Sunday of the month. Every workshop is held by a different coach / actor / instructor and on a different technique. The price is very competitive. I have never been disappointed by joing their workshops. The workshops are always bi-lingual.

You can find info on their workshops on the B-Floor Facebook Group

Arts On Location

Arts on Location was initiated by Adjima Na Pattalung, is an organization dedicated to bringing high level drama instructors from abroad to hold 1-week acting classes in Bangkok. Adjjima organises at least 2 workshops per year and the instructors are hand-picked by herself. Every workshop I have joined has helped me improve my acting skills tremendously. the workshops are always conducted in English.

For updates about the next workshops join the Arts on Location Facebook Page

Theatre Shows and Workshops

If that is not enough I created this Facebook Page “Theatre Shows And Workshops” Don’t be scared, most of the workshops posted there are in Thai.

Stunt Workshops

Ron Smoorenburg

Ron is probably the most experienced stunt man in Thailand. He started his career back in the Netherlands working on a movie with Jackie Chan. Then moved to Hong Kong and finally settled down in Thailand. He offers private classes for those who are serious about their work.

Mobile:  087 709 9844

Email: ronsmoorenburg74@gmail.com

Website: http://www.ron-smoorenburg.com

IMDB: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0810653

 

6. Create a Reputation

Working on set, whether as extra or in another part, don’t be mistaken, it is a job. People are watching you and how you behave. If you are being asked to be somewhere at a certain time, be there on time.

Every time you are on set is a chance for you to show people that you are willing to work. People on set are watching and will remember the way you work. The industry is much smaller than you may initally think. Everybody knows everybody and people will talk about you and how you behave on set.

You want to create a repuation of a hard worker who is able to perform.

7. Don’t Be An Ass

Although this is basically an addition to Number 6, I think it’s worth mentioning as separate point.

I’ve seen it happening many times. Once on set people start behaving their worst. All the things that momma told you not to do at home are suddenly displayed and laid out on set.

If you behave like an ass on set people will remember and people will talk about you. News will spread and you will see less jobs coming your way – unless your name is Christian Bale, of course.

Until you have reached that level, just don’t be an ass. And even if you reach that level, just don’t.

8. Create A Resume

In any industry it is good to keep track of what you’ve done. The film industry is not different. Here is an example of how your resume can look like: Acting Resume

9. Create An Acting Reel

Although it is much less important than in other countries it is a good idea to create an acting / stunt reel at some point of your career to show people what you are capable of. A reel should not be longer than 3 minutes (preferably less than that 2.30 is the standard) and remember less is more. Rather choose fewer scenes with more intense acting than trying to put all of your work into a short clip.

Here is a sample for an Acting Reel

So those are the first 9 steps to get into the Film Industry in Thailand.

Source: http://actors-thailand.com/2016/03/17/how-to-get-into-the-film-industry-in-thailand/

The 7 Filmmaking Blogs You Should Be Reading

posted May 21, 2017, 4:59 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken


The 7 Filmmaking Blogs You Should Be Reading & Bookmarking Today!

Posted On October 30, 2014

Second only to on-set experience, filmmaking blogs are arguably the best way to learn the craft of filmmaking and to be inspired creatively. I have personally learned so much over the years online (as I never went to film school), and always recommend to filmmakers at every level that they consume as much information as they can from credible blogs and resources online in order to continually further their knowledge base. For that reason, I’ve gone ahead and made my list of the top 7 filmmaking blogs that you should be following today!

Here we go, in no particular order:

John Brawley

URL: http://www.johnbrawley.wordpress.com

John Brawley is an amazingly accomplished DP based out of Australia, with a list of credits far too large to outline here. As a cinematographer, naturally his blog is oriented towards camera reviews, technical advice, lighting setups and other key topics that provide filmmakers with a wealth of information to learn from. If you are a Blackmagic shooter, you should be paying especially close attention to this site, as Brawley was one of the pioneers of Blackmagic’s Cinema Cameras having utilized them on professional/broadcast level projects very early on.

Vincent Laforet

URL: http://blog.vincentlaforet.com

Vincent Laforet’s personal blog was one of the first highly relevant filmmaking blogs that truly offered readers valuable and insightful information on the film industry. Updates on his site don’t come as frequently as some of the other blogs on this list, but Laforet takes a quality over quantity approach and as such every article that he puts out has a lot of substance to it. He covers a wide range of topics from technical know-how to business advice, and all of it comes from real world experience.

Nofilmschool

URL: http://www.nofilmschool.com

Nofilmschool has become the single best news-oriented filmmaking site out there. With multiple articles added every day, this site (founded by Ryan Koo) provides readers with an exceptionally wide-spectrum of filmmaking material every day. Chances are, if you’re reading this list you are already following Nofilmschool, but if you’re not – be sure to check in daily for updates on camera tech, business advice, visual inspiration, reviews, and much more. Nofilmschool curates content from across the web so they are able to deliver to you some of the best material found online on any given day.

Hurlbut Visuals

URL: http://www.hurlbutvisuals.com/blog/

The ‘Hurl Blog’ was founded by acclaimed cinematographer Shane Hurlbut in 2009, and has since become an incredibly rich camera based blog dedicated to emerging filmmakers. While you might expect that an ASC level cinematographer who has been working at the top of his game for years would only focus on the highest end of the filmmaking spectrum, Shane makes a concerted effort to make his site accessible to filmmakers of all shapes and sizes. His articles will touch on prosumer level cameras (like the 5D), professional gear (such as the Canon C500), lighting techniques, production tips and everything in between.

Premiumbeat

URL: http://www.premiumbeat.com/blog

Premium Beat’s blog (titled ‘The Beat) is an amazing online filmmaking resource that is contributed to monthly by filmmakers, industry pros, and writers. The site covers a wide array of topics, but places a special emphasis on the technical end of production and post-production, while also delivering relevant industry news on a daily basis. Like Nofilmschool, this is a site that you will likely want to visit daily in order to get up to speed on it all!

IndieWIRE

URL: http://www.indiewire.com

Unlike many of the sites on this list which are mainly technically oriented, IndieWIRE provides filmmakers (and fans) with bigger picture industry-centric news, reviews, advice and more. They cover the independent film scene much in the same way that Variety covers the Hollywood scene, and ultimately tap into the heart of what is going on in the independent film world today. They have nearly every corner of the indie-film scene covered and are updating constantly with enough fresh content to keep you coming back daily.

Filmmaker IQ

URL: http://www.filmmakeriq.com

Filmmaker IQ is another great filmmaking site that covers a very wide range of topics. While many blogs focus primarily on camera tech, post-techniques, or industry news, this website covers it all. Recent topics have covered: camera movement, lighting setups, writing advice, and other fun facts (such as the history of popcorn at the movies) – all of which are written by filmmakers. It’s refreshing that Filmmaker IQ covers not only the most current industry related topics, but also historical filmmaking info, allowing for readers to dig deeper into the history of filmmaking as a craft.

Noam Kroll

URL: http://www.noamkroll.com

If you’re not a regular reader of this site – my goal is to provide filmmakers with a well rounded resource for truly independent filmmaking by sharing camera/gear reviews, inspiration, post-production techniques and much more from real world projects. What makes my blog different from many of the other film blogs out there (written primarily by cinematographers or editors) is that I am first and foremost a director, and as such write articles from that point of view. Many directors today are like myself in that they often write, shoot and edit their own work, and this website is dedicated to helping filmmakers of all types gain a vast spectrum of knowledge in each aspect of the craft, so that they can become better storytellers.

There are countless amazing resources online for filmmaking, and I have limited my selection to just a few of the websites and blogs that I wanted to feature here. That said, I would love to continue to update this list as time goes on so feel free to comment below if you have any suggestions for additions to this list.

Also, be sure to subscribe to this site using the form on the right panel of this page for updates on future articles, gear reviews, and much more!

Noam Kroll is an award-winning Los Angeles based filmmaker, and the founder of the boutique production house, Creative Rebellion. His work can be seen at international film festivals, on network television, and in various publications across the globe. Follow Noam on social media using the links below for more content like this!

What’s an Aggregator & Why Do You Need One to Get On iTunes & Beyond?

posted May 21, 2017, 4:18 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated May 21, 2017, 4:52 AM ]



Handling the digital release of your film yourself? The possibilities are exciting — and sometimes overwhelming. How do you get your film on iTunes, Google Play, Hulu, Netflix and other giant platforms where new audiences can see the film? It’s easier than you think, and the bottom line is: get an aggregator.

While in the past filmmakers have decried their dependence on the “middle men” of distribution, in this case, an aggregator can be a great ally. With the growing trend of aggregators towards flat fees and small-to-no profit share, the option is becoming more transparent and affordable for independent filmmakers with hybrid distribution strategies in mind.

If you’re looking into this option for your next film, here is a very quick crash course on what an aggregator does, and where to find out more.

Why do you need an aggregator?
Aggregators are the gatekeepers between you and the big platforms. iTunes, for example, will only accept content from an approved encoding house, many of which are also preferred aggregators. In theory, you can apply to send them content directly from an Apple-approved encoding house. However, most of us wont meet the application requirements — like having 5 feature films that were released theatrically. From iTunes:

Aggregators are experts in delivering content to iTunes. For a fee they can correctly format and deliver your content to Apple’s specifications. The majority of independent movies offered on iTunes is provided by one of our aggregator partners...All content must be encoded and delivered by an Apple-approved encoding house. The encoding house processes the content in the Apple-specific encode that is required for distribution on iTunes.

So why do you want your film to be on one of these platforms, again? The decision of where to put your film online is different for every filmmaker. One answer, however, is that getting on these big platforms gets you more eyeballs. A popular model for DIYers today is to get it two places: 1) your own site and 2) everywhere else you can get on for TVOD streams and downloads.


Quick video on demand vocabulary: “transactional” or TVOD is referring to where users pay a fee to watch your film, like iTunes. This is in contrast to “subscription” or SVOD based models like Netflix where you don't make money off individual views, but are paid a flat licensing fee.

The two-pronged approach above is based on knowing you will keep more of the profits from selling your film directly on your site. You’ll be looking at maybe a 90/10 split if you are using something like VHX to power your streaming/downloading option, and that's where you'll want your fanbase to go to see your film. On a platform like iTunes, the split is generally 70/30 or 60/40 depending on if the transaction is a sale or a rental. (That’s 70% to the filmmaker. Phew.) You're giving up 30% of your share to iTunes, but it's 30% of something you wouldn't have gotten if you weren't on iTunes. And with an aggregator, you can get to iTunes without giving up even more of that revenue to a distributor or sales agent. Here is Erik Andersen, on why he started his Sundance-partnered aggregator Quiver:

It starts with the filmmaker. With an idea for a story that needs to be told. This is the source of all value in the entertainment industry. So, why are they often the ones seeing the smallest reward? I first witnessed this while working at iTunes. Individual filmmakers would call me to beg for help. Their movie had been in the top 50 for six months and they had never received a dime, was there anything I could do? I would learn that their deal with an aggregator or sales agent took 10-50% of revenue and had a clause to cover “expenses” of anywhere from $10,000 – $75,000. Even if those criteria were met, it seemed like filmmakers still weren’t getting paid. I felt powerless. Until I realized that it didn’t have to be this way. I could change it. I quit Apple and set myself on the goal of turning indie film distribution on its head.

So what does an aggregator do?
Generally, you can expect an aggregator to encode your film to the specs of a particular platform, and then deliver it to them. This can include helping you pass QC, packaging your film's assets for CC and subtitles, and putting together all your artwork and metadata according to the required format of each of the platforms/territories. In some cases, an aggregator will put together a pitch, especially for a platform that selectively curates films (like Netflix, Hulu.)
Finally, once people start buying your film on a given platform, that platform will pay your aggregator, and your aggregator will pay you!

How much does it cost?
Fees are usually around $1K for your first feature film platform delivery, and a smaller fee per platform after that. Some aggregators also charge a percentage of your revenues. Revenue share could be worth considering if you are able to lower upfront fees that you don't have the budget for. Otherwise, there are many aggregators now who don't demand revenue shares, so it’s hard to justify forking over 10-15% for no reason.
Additionally, some platforms offer discounts, say for using Compressor. Others can create assets for you that you don’t have, like Closed Captions or Subtitles at a discounted rate. So you’ll need to research the right price points for yourself to find the best aggregator for your film.  

Who are they?
Here is a handful of aggregators to get you started. While this is not a comprehensive list of every company out there, it is based off of US iTunes preferred partners. If iTunes is not high on your priority list, there may be other great aggregators out there for you. (And feel free to recommend those we’ve missed in the comments.) Pricing is included for aggregators who made it available. Feel free to visit each site to find out more specifics!

A simple and affordable way to distribute your movie globally.

From Erik Anderson, Founder:

You don’t have to give up a part of your dream to make it possible for people to see it. Don’t. Don’t sell your years of hard work for a small up front payment and a vague promise that will most likely result in nothing. You made your movie. You had the vision. You should be the one to see it through to the end. You should keep as much of the reward as possible. That’s why I started Quiver.


Flat fee for first platform: $950
Each platform after that: $175
Revenue Share: 0%

Juice distributes film and television content across the major digital download and streaming platforms – worldwide. We have highly coveted “preferred” distribution partner status with iTunes, Google, Amazon and Netflix. Cable/Satellite/Telco VOD services are presently available through Juice (Canada only) and VUBIQUITY (U.S. and International). We’re always expanding our platform reach.

Flat fee for first platform: $945
Each platform after that: $195
Revenue Share: 0%

Walla’s proprietary tools leverage technology to solve common VOD pipeline issues and reduce the costs associated with platform delivery. Our Studio Services dashboard was designed as an end-to-end solution to bring efficiency and accountability to our content partners.

Flat fee for first iTunes territory: $999
Fee for each iTunes Territory after that: $49
Other platforms: $199
Revenue Share: 15%

With over 15 years behind us as a purely digital facility, bitMAX is renowned as one of the world’s largest independent digital supply chain providers. Our storage and delivery platform is responsible for the distribution of thousands of films, TV shows and more music videos than any other company on the planet. bitMAX is the easiest path for global distribution. Our direct relationships with major platforms which include iTunes, Amazon, Google Play, and vevo allow anyone anywhere on any platform, device, or operating system to access your Film, TV Show, Concert or Music Video . Contact us and we'll let you know what you need to do to get your content out to the world.


Flat fee: Film plans start at $500.00; contact for quote.
Revenue share: 0%

Giant Interactive provides digital and physical media preparation and delivery services for Blu-ray, DVD, digital video platforms and OTT services, as well as complete iTunes content aggregation. We’re experts at preparing your content for distribution wherever your audience may be. Our foundation in video makes Giant unique among most full-service digital studios, giving our clients a powerful resource that can enhance any distribution strategy.

Fees: Email sales@giant-interactive.com to find out

We localize, manage and distribute entertainment and media content for the biggest names in the industry. Our revolutionary technology helps us to work smarter and deliver high quality, efficient, cost-effective services.

Fees: Request a quote based on runtime

3 Must-Haves For Your Sample TV Spec Script

posted May 21, 2017, 4:04 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken


3 Must-Haves For Your Sample TV Spec Script

MAY 12, 2017 BY 

Television staff writers hold some of the most coveted (and highest paid) writing positions in Hollywood. And your first step toward ‘breaking in’ and becoming one of these elite writers begins with crafting a top-notch sample TV spec script.

In articles I’ve written about Feature-Length screenwriting, I’ve constantly remarked how Newbie writers should avoid Comedy and Drama like the plague. However when it comes to writing your Sample TV Spec Script, the exact opposite is true!  Comedy and Drama are the only two genres you should consider and all others (e.g., action, horror) should be completely avoided.

3 Must-Haves For Your Sample TV Spec Script

Must-Have #1: The Right Kind of Genre

If you want to showcase your Comedy writing skills, then you’ll need to focus on the thirty-minute episode format (either for a live-studio audience as seen in Two and Half Men, or the alternative ‘staged’ versions as seen in Louie and Girls.  If you would rather work on the dramatic side, then put your emphasis on the scripted one-hour dramas found on Network TV.

Hop online and get sample scripts from existing programs similar to yours to make sure your formatting is in sync. For example, live-studio sitcom formatting is completely different than traditional script formatting. Also TV generally requires ‘Act’ breaks for commercials.

Want to be creative and blend genres to create a ‘coming-of-age dramedy’?

Don’t do it!

Choose Comedy OR Drama and move on.

Must-Have #2:  A Ready-to-Go Portfolio

You will need a minimum of two (ideally three) sample TV spec scripts before you’re ready to present yourself to Hollywood as a TV writer.  And unlike the old days, these sample scripts should not be from existing series. You need to ‘invent’ two fully fleshed out TV series (and write one script for each).  You don’t have to write a Series Bible unless it helps you, but you might want to consider outlining 3-4 additional episodes for each series to give a sample of what a full season might look like.

You should NOT try to ‘showcase your skills’ by writing one sitcom-comedy and one hour-long drama… As a writer you must choose either Comedy OR Drama and invent two unique series from the same genre.

Won’t you get a reputation as only being a ‘comedy’ writer or ‘dramatic’ writer? 

YES!

And having that reputation is a good thing.  In TV, executives and showrunners are thinking long-running seasons with multiple episodes… Being able to remain consistent with genre type and tone will really showcase this as a strength for your writing skills.

Must-Have #3:  Proof of ‘Episodic Output’

When choosing your series ‘ideas’ don’t get too wrapped up in the beginning, middle and end story mentality. You will first need to create an overarching ‘concept’ that has the ongoing ability to generate endless story possibilities.  To do this, keep your ideas big and open-ended. For example, think Breaking Bad’s big & open concept of a cancer patient cooking and dealing meth to pay his medical bills. It is not a plotline you’re after here, but rather a ‘filter’ to keep ideas on track while offering countless ways to mishmash conflicting characters and episodic plotlines together.

Second, when it comes to your sample TV spec script, focus on fully-realized 3-dimensional characters; pay careful attention to ensure your characters are able to both augment and conflict with one another simultaneously.  Remember, its characters that drive long-running TV series; by taking these fleshed out characters and placing them into your big & open ‘concept’ filter, you will have a series capable of season-after-season of strong episodic output.

From here, you can begin pulling individual ‘segments’ from either the overarching ‘concept’ or from the individual lives of your fleshed out characters and build episodes around them—this allows each episode to have its own unique beginning, middle and end without altering the strength or direction of the entire series.

As I explain in my book, Writing for the Green Light, this ability to continually create fresh ideas from pre-existing frameworks is absolutely crucial in the landscape of TV writing (writers are constantly forced into creating new and unique ‘episodes’ for seemingly exhausted programs that have been on the air for several years).  If your Sample TV Spec Scripts can showcase this ability, your work will stand head and shoulders above the competition and get taken seriously by Agents, Executives and Key Decision-Makers.

Three Steps For Netflix Distribution

posted May 21, 2017, 3:57 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated May 21, 2017, 3:58 AM ]


Three Steps For Netflix Distribution (For Indie Filmmakers)

MAY 12, 2017 BY 



In truth, unless your film project has major notoriety (because it played at a top tier film festival or has ginormous buzz) Netflix prefers that you utilize an established distributor or aggregator. But there is hope…

Three Steps For Netflix Distribution

Netflix is as a premium subscription channel similar HBO or Showtime. They pay a licensing fee for content they are interested in. And for these reasons, most Netflix distribution deals are negotiated by a distributor or aggregator. With all of this said, here are some steps to get you started.

Step 1 – Refine Your Pitch For Netflix

Because nearly every filmmaker dreams of getting a Netflix deal, there is an abundant supply of content. This means you will have to find some creative ways to make your film rise above the noise and get noticed. So before you reach out to a distributor or an aggregator, you need to clearly demonstrate “what’s in it for Netflix.”

Here are some questions to help refine your pitch:

  1. Do you have any “names” or “influencers” in your film?
  2. Does your film focus on a popular subject?
  3. Does your film have a strong social media following or press?

Step 2 – Find An Aggregator or Distributor

Once you have a strong pitch that showcases the value of your film, your next step is to partner with a distributor or aggregator capable of making the pitch. These entities will first evaluate your film to determine if your film (and your pitch) has a good shot at getting picked up.

Step 3 – Get A Response

If your film gets pitched to Netflix, it will take a few weeks to get a response. If Netflix is interested, they will negotiate directly with your distributor or aggregator. If accepted, your distributor will work with various vendors and encoding houses to deliver your film. You will need to provide your distributor or aggregator with all the necessary video files and artwork.

(Note: If Netflix chooses to license worldwide rights, you will need to deliver subtitles and localized artwork for each territory.)

If Netflix is passes on your film, you usually won’t get a lot of feedback. Do not take this personally. Perhaps Netflix picked up a similar film last week. Or perhaps the acquisition team is focused on other genres.

While we are on the subject of subscription video on demand (SVOD), it may behoove you to check out Amazon Prime. The service is similar to Netflix in the sense that subscribers can view anything in the Prime ecosystem. But unlike Netflix, Prime does not pay licensing fee. You are actually paid based on hours viewed.

If you would like to learn more about film distribution, check out my guide to VOD distribution. It just might help.


127 Facts You Probably Didn’t Know About The Video Marketing

posted May 5, 2017, 8:05 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated May 5, 2017, 8:11 AM ]

Even if you have been in the video centric digital marketing industry as long as we have, there will still be a few things about video marketing that slips by.  For many, there are hundreds of facts..actually, 127 fact, that they did not know about video marketing.

Every business needs a digital marketing strategy focused on using videos.  A
 Digital Marketing Roadmap helps marketers stay focused.

Our friends at 
WebSiteBuilder.org.uk created this wonderful infographic that nails down 127 facts pertaining to Video Marketing.  CLICK on the image to see the InfoGraphic!!


127 Facts You Probably Didn’t Know About The Video Marketing

Source:
Thanks Megan.
Megan Arevalo
Social Media Manager | CRO Geek  | Portland's Coolest Mom

Film Lighting Wiki Manual

posted May 2, 2017, 7:45 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken

Lighting Conventions

Broadcast, Video, and Film Productions share common lighting conventions. Due to the fact that most lighting tools were originally developed for film, with a few tools introduced for video, the equipment carries ratings and specifications are standardized for film. All the lighting tools found in a decently equipped video production studio have direct relatives (usually just larger, brighter and more expensive) in a film production studio.

Electricity

Every lighting fixture uses electricity. How much it requires and in what form varies on the application of the light(s). The electrical description consists of Voltage, Amperage, and Wattage. Commonly, studio lights use 115± (plus or minus) 5 Volts (V) or "225±5 V". The amperages (amperes or amps) and wattages (Watts or W) vary depending on the fixture, bulb type, and light output. 115V lights range from 10W (LEDs) up to 2000W-2500W (Halogen-Quartz), 225V range also from 10W to 4500W-5000W.

Terminology

Bulbs
Refers to the actual light source. Most bulbs consist of a filament, insulating gas, and a glass encasement. Also known as "lamps," or "globes."
Fixtures
The cases or enclosures that hold a bulb, and often serve the purpose of directing the light. Fixtures range from simple bulb holders (such as clamp lights), to elaborate mechanisms (such as Source Four). Also known as "heads," or "instruments."
Mounts
A device that holds the light where you want it to be. Some clamp to overhead lighting grids, while others are stands.
Power (AC)
The power source or the power supply. Where the light is getting its electricity.

Lighting equipment

Lighting kit just after it's been loaded off the van. More production stills here.

Lighting equipment consists of a great deal more than just sockets with bulbs. Lighting equipment (briefly) consists of bulbs (usually called 'lamps'), fixtures, dimmers/power units, mounts, light control/quality.

Redheads

Redheads are a specific type of open-faced light made by Ianiro. They usually offer tungsten 1000W. They are also known as Mickey-Moles (when made by Mole-Richardson). The term Redhead comes from the reddish color of the original fiber casing and is often used to loosely describe smaller, open-faced lights.

Blondes

Blondes are a 2k open-faced light. Because they are open-faced, they tend to put out more light than a 2k Fresnel.

Bulb Types

Video/Film recording lights use many different bulb types. Some are standards from Edison (tungsten) but others are cutting edge of the 2000s (LED). Most bulb types use a filament-ignition process to produce light. A wire of some electrically excitable material is put under voltage in an oxygen-depleted environment, causing it to 'burn' without lighting afire. Fluorescent bulbs and LEDs function rather differently from filament bulbs.

Tungsten

A tungsten light is basically a more powerful version of a common household light bulb. While a household light bulb may only take a few hundred watts at most, lights that are used to light film sets are easily 1000 watts (1K) and often over 20,000 watts (20K). The tungsten light bulb naturally produces an orange hue, similar to indoor lights. Tungsten lights have a color temperature ranging from 3200 to 3400 Kelvin. One typically uses a CTB (''color temperature blue'') filter to balance the color temperature with outdoor or HMI light.

Halogen-Quartz

Halogen-Quartz bulbs, often known as "Halogens" or "Quartz" are a staple of lighting. Halogens rarely posses a color temperature outside of 3200°K. These same bulbs are often used in car headlights, portable work-lights, and recently in house-decor lighting. The bulbs come in wattages ranging from 15W-3500W. Additionally they are manufactured in a wide range of enclosures, bases, and connectors. Common are the "T", and bayonet base. Halogens emit significant amounts of heat during operation, so much so that oils on the glass surface of the bulb case lead to uneven heat distribution and rupturing (through thermal shock to the glass) or heat build-up and exploding gas within the bulb.

HMI

An HMI light is used very often to light film sets. One requires a ballast in order to power and creates a loud noise when turning on, so it is set protocol to yell "striking" in order to warn others on set to both ignore the noise and avoid looking at the light. The HMI light is a different type of light bulb than the more common tungsten. An HMI emits ultra-violet lights and emits a blue hue. HMI lights produce a color temperature around 5600 Kelvin. One typically use a CTO (''color temperature orange'') filter to balance the color temperature with indoor or tungsten light.

Fluorescent

Fluorescent bulbs were not used for lighting film and video until recently. This was because of problems with flicker and a tendency to emit more of a greenish hue. The Fluorescent lights used in film now are made to be flicker-free and come in both daylight and tungsten balanced bulbs. "Kino-flo" is one of the major companies involved in making fluorescent bulbs and fixtures for film and video production. Fluorescent lights tend to be very soft, but do not put out much light in comparison to other lighting instruments.

LED

Until the last five to ten years Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have seen little implementation. Recent advances in production costs and chemical advances used in the diode junctions have led to inexpensive LED 'bulbs' as well as even color temperatures in multiple bulbs. LEDs are manufactured in all colors, and white comes in many color temperatures; 3200K being the most common, but ranging from 3000K to 5600K+. Diodes, due to their engineered design tend to have a very directional light. The front lens is parabolic, focusing the light to a small dot even several meters away.

Light Control, Quality, and Appearance

Lighting Shape/Area

There are a number of tools used to control where light falls. Often these are used to prevent light falling where it is not needed. In other circumstances a pattern created by the light is desired.

Barn Doors

Perhaps the most common form of lighting area shaping, barn doors are found around the front outside of the fixture. Most commonly there are four barn doors forming a square around the fixture, but the numbers vary for specialty applications.

Basically, barn doors block the light from hitting an area of the set or frame you don't want them to. They swing towards and away from the fixture opening.

Gobos

Gobos shape the light. Many gobos appear to be shapes cut in a cookie sheet (and indeed many are) but they consist of a material able to withstand the heat put out by the fixture, with shapes cut out for the light to travel through.

Think of gobos as jack o' lanterns.

Flags & Cutters

A flag or cutter can be any item that blocks light. A standard flag on set can be of varying sizes. The standard flag is attached to a small metal handle and short rod that can be attached to a C-Stand and placed so that it blocks the light from hitting something in the shot. Flags can be used to prevent light from hitting background walls, for example, leaving only the central subject/s in the light.

Types of flags include singles & doubles to cut down hard light. Solids to block light. Silks, though similar, are translucent and used to diffuse, rather than block light.

Blackwrap

Blackwrap is essentially aluminum foil, but covered in black paint. It is often used to block light and kill any spill from a light. Blackwrap can be shaped however you like to affect where the light falls. It is useful in narrowing larger lights to point lights or spots or making lights non-circular. It is very inexpensive, light weight and more flexible than barn doors. However, it will burn on too hot a light, so watch for smoke. Blackwrap(TM) is a product from the company, Gam Products Inc. A similar product, CineFoil(TM) is made by Rosco Laboratories Inc.

Lighting Intensity

Focus

Adjusting the focus on a focusable light changes the distance between the actual bulb and a lens at the end of the light. This affects how diffuse the light is. Closer to the lens spreads the light out more, whereas farther back makes it closer to a spot. Try to do this before the light gets too hot, so you can adjust it without burning yourself.

Neutral Density Filters

Neutral density filters are a variety of gel (or camera filter) which reduces all colors of light equally, making a light less intense without altering its color. This can be added on top of color gels or used on its own to make a light less intense.

Lighting Quality

Gels

Gels are thin and translucent. They come in rolls that can be cut into a more manageable size when needed. While a gel can be any color, there are two main colors which are referred to as Color Temperature Orange (CTO) and Color Temperature Blue (CTB). These two types of gel are respectively orange and blue, with varying degrees of darkness broken up into 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, and Full. Full is the darkest and 1/8 is the lightest. When asking for a gel, one may say "I'd like a quarter CTO put on this light."

Gels are attached to a light in order to alter their color temperature. Tungsten lights produce an orange hue, while HMI's produce a blue hue. If filming outside with tungsten lights, gels would be needed to match the color temperature of the daylight if the DP wanted all the light to be the same color temperature. Daylight produces a blue hue like an HMI light, so CTB would be needed to be placed on all the tungsten lights. Gels are attached to lights with clothespins, also called "C-47's."

Besides CTO and CTB, to work with fluorescent lights or a "kino flo", there are "plus green" and "minus green" gels. Since fluorescent lights produce a green hue, a minus green gel would remove the green hue from a fluorescent light and a plus green gel would help match a non-fluorescent light to a fluorescent.

Attaching

Some lights have clips for attaching gels, but the most common method of attaching them is via wooden clothespins (also referred to as C47s, pegs, or bullets). These clothespins will begin to smoke before the gels, so you can prevent your gels from being ruined, and they also don't conduct heat, so they can be manipulated even on a very hot light. They can also be reversed to give them a longer mouth, allowing you to use them to pull scrims from hot fixtures. Once reversed, they often go by C-74's or "scrim pullers".

General Lighting

Here is the nitty-gritty of the page. Although different formats have varying needs in both quantity and quality of light, the underlying yet critical concepts of lighting are fairly applicable to any medium.

Lighting Digital Video

Dynamic range. There are many differences between DV and film, but one that particularily stands out regarding lighting is dynamic range.

Most DV and video cameras have a relatively low dynamic range. (I.ex. the Sony PD150 has about 4-5 stops, and Kodak's 50D film has up to 11). This means the range between the completely black and the whitest white is very low. One therefore has to keep this in mind while lighting. This has been an integral part of cinematography since the beginning. Controlling so one can see details in the darkest area of an image, and also in the brightest. One can always adjust the contrast in post (Colorgrading). This style of working is called shooting for post. (The DV standard has an ok light intensity resolution, so adjusting contrast in post is not as difficult as adjusting color.)

White balance. As the DV standard has a low color-resolution, it is important to control and know how to filter and white balance the image on set. It has been proved difficult to adjust color in post with a good result, although it has been done. Regarding lighting, be aware of the possibilities the white balance setting on the camera have, and use gels on the lamps, and sometimes on windows to create a neutral image.

In return for these shortcomings, DV-cameras can be more light-sensitive than most film stocks, and therefore require less light intensity, to give the same image. (PD150 is about 320ASA versus Kodak's 50D's 50ASA. One would need about 8 times more light, to get the same image at the same F-stop). Although high ASA film is available.

You just do what you have to do.

Video & Film Glossary

posted May 2, 2017, 7:41 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated May 2, 2017, 7:42 AM ]


 

A  |   B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  Q  |  R  |  S  |  T  |  V  |  W      

 

A

 

aperture = the open area of the iris, the variable opening behind the lens that controls the amount of light admitted to the camera.

aperture = the open area of the iris, the variable opening behind the lens that controls the amount of light admitted to the camera.

ambient light = the general light surrounding the subject, filling in the shadows, generally of a soft, low- contrast quality and often from sources of light reflecting off objects in the space.

arc light = a powerful lamp in which the electric current flows between two electrodes. A carbon arc operates in the normal atmospheric pressure, while a mercury arc works with the current flowing through an enclosed mercury vapor. This pressure can sometimes be very high.

accent light = an instrument that focuses attention on an area. It can be in any position: key, kicker, or back.

 

B

 

backlight = an instrument positioned directly behind and above the subject, aimed at the subject’s back. Care must be taken not to have the backlight shine into the lens of the camera, creating flares.

bail = also known as the yoke, the bail is a U-shaped bracket that holds an instrument, either hanging from a pipe clamp or on a stand connector.

ballast = a device required to operate any discharge light, such as arc lamps (both simple arcs and HMIs) and fluorescent, designed to limit amperage to a specific level.

barndoors = hinged black metal flaps that attach to the front of a lighting instrument to limit and shape the pattern of light.

beadboard = a type of housing insulation made of polystyrene beads formed into a flat board. It is used to bounce soft, diffuse light.

beam angle = the diameter of the beam angle is defined as the area of the light field that is 50% or more of the peak intensity of the beam.

blackwrap = a thick, durable, aluminum foil that has been anodized flat black used on hot lights to control spill and to shape the beam.

blondie = a 2000W quartz open-face light, the big sibling of the Redhead.

blackbody radiator = a theoretical incandescent source used in defining the concept of color temperature. The spectral power and color distribution of a blackbody source depend only on temperature.

brightness = ability of a surface to reflect or emit light in the direction of the viewer.

 

C



C-clamp = a large C-shaped clamp with a baby stud or junior receptacle welded to it that is used to mount lights to beams.

C-stand = a special, highly adaptable lighting stand, short for Century Stand. The special dual plate head can mount a boom arm or a light mount, can clamp flat material on or can be used for setting flags and nets.

chicken coop = an overhead suspended light box that provides general downward ambient or shadowless fill light.

chroma key = a method of separating a subject against a background of a solid primary color (usually green or blue) for the purpose of compositing that subject against a new background.

color conversion gel = a gel used to convert a light source from one color temperature to another.

color correction gel = a gel that adds or subtracts green to a light source.

color temperature = a system of evaluating the color of a light source that has a continuous color spectrum by comparing it to a theoretically perfect temperature radiator called a black body. The temperature is measured on Kelvin scale.

contrast = the ratio between the lightest area of the scene (or picture) and the darkest area of a scene (or picture). Lighting contrast refers to the light intensity differences between the sources.

cookie = also called cucaloris. An irregularly perforated shadow-forming flag, opaque or translucent, made of plywood or plastic, for example.

CRI = color rendering index. This is measure of the spectrum content of the light source and, thus, its ability to render colors accurately.

CRT = cathode ray tube.

cutter = a long black flag that is used to “cut “light from an area of the set.

cyclorama (cyc) = stage background, usually white with rounded corners, that is used to create a limbo or sky effect. Made of plaster or starched plastic. Sometimes painted green or blue for shooting foreground elements to be composited using a chroma key process.

cyc strip = lighting instrument shaped like a trough with up to twelve bulbs for even illumination of a cyclorama.

 

D



daylight = light commonly considered to have a color temperature of 5500 K to 6000 K.

diffusion = material used in front of lighting fixtures to soften the light they produce.

diffused light = light originating from a physically large source. It is either reflected (bounced) off a surface or directed through a diffusing medium.

dimmer = an instrument used to change the voltage of lights on the set, regulating in this way their intensity. Color temperature of the lights will lower when dimmed.

discontinuous spectrum = characteristic of light sources, such as fluorescent tubes, which emit energy only in a few wavelength bands of the spectrum. Some colors are not represented in the discontinuous spectrum.

DMX = short for digital multiplexing, DMX is a digital standard for lighting control set by USITT.

dolly = a wheeled vehicle for mounting a camera and accommodating a camera operator and assistant. Often equipped with a boom on which the camera is mounted.

 

E



egg crate = a deep grate that allows soft light to be controlled into a directional beam rather than spreading all over the place. The deeper the egg crate is, the more control it provides.

electronic ballast = a solid state ballast. The term electronic ballast is synonymous with flicker-free square-wave ballast (HMI) or high frequency (fluorescent).

expendables = supplies that are used up in production, such as gaffer tape, gels, black wraps.

exposure = a process of subjecting a photographic film to any light intensity for a given time, resulting in a latent image.

eye light = a small instrument positioned to create a glint in the subject’s eye.

 

F



fill light = soft light used to reduce the darkness of the shadow areas.

flag = an opaque rectangle, usually black cloth stretched over a wire frame, that is used to block light to a certain area. Same as a gobo or cutter. These are sometimes made out of thin plywood painted black.

flicker-free = an HMI or fluorescent ballast that provides a square-wave or high frequency signal that eliminates light-level pulsation when filmed at any shutter speed.

flood = the spread of the beam of a fixture that is broad and relatively weak.

fluorescent = a tubular lamp that creates light by exciting mercury vapor gas, which then emits ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

foamcore = a white, glossy card material reinforced with ¼-in. styrofoam and used to bounce light.

focal length = the distance between the optical center of the lens and the target when the lens is focused on infinity.

frequency = the number of cycles per second on alternating current, measure in hertz.

Fresnel = a type of lens that has the same optical effect as a standard plano-convex lens but has reduced weight and heat retention.  A light fixture that uses Fresnel lens.

F-stop = a number obtained by dividing the focal length of the lens by its effective aperture. F-stop numbers represent the speed of the lens at any given diaphragm setting.

 

G



gaffer = the head of the lighting crew. The gaffer works directly under the director of photography.

gaffer tape = heavy, fabric –based tape that rips cleanly in the direction of the wave. It is used for securing cables and lights on the set.

gamma = a graph line that describes a film emulsion’s reaction to tonal gradation and its innate contrast. Also called D log E curve or characteristic curve.

gel = a transparent, colored plastic sheet – usually polyethylene – used to change the color of light. In early theater the sheets were made of colored gelatin.  

glow light = a weak light source that creates a bit of a glow on the actor’s face.

gobo = a large flag, cutter, or even a full sized flat used to cast a shadow on part of the set. The name comes from the early film days, when the director would call, “go black out” a portion of set. This was abbreviated on the production notes as “GO B.O.” then just gobo.

green screen = a pure green, evenly lit background. The process where all green background is rendered transparent, so that a new background can be placed behind the subject.

grid = pipe system above soundstage where lights re hung.

Griffolyn = a polyethylene laminate with a stranded reinforcement. It’s popular as a large reflector or flag material for frames.

grip = a crew member responsible for the nonelectrical aspects of lighting and rigging and for the camera dolly and other camera platforms.

 

H

 


hair light = a backlight positioned above and just slightly behind a subject to create highlights on the hair.

halogen = elements such as iodine, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and astatine are classified as halogens. They are used in manufacturing tungsten halogen lamps, such as quartz-iodine bulbs.

Hertz = a measure of frequency in cycles per second (Hz).

high key = a bright lighting style with low contrast and bright highlights.

HMI = a metal halide discharge lamp constituting, in effect, a mercury arc enclosed in a glass envelope. Short for hydrargyrum medium arc-length iodide. Gives off color temperature equivalent to daylight.

hot spot = a very bright area in the scene, caused by excessive light or a strong reflection.

housing = the metal casing that surrounds the bulb and reflector of a lighting fixture.

 

I

 

incandescent = any type of electric light that creates light by making a metallic filament (usually tungsten for film lights) glow by applying current to it.

 

K

 

Kelvin scale = a temperature scale used in expressing the color temperature

key light = the main source used to light a subject. Its direction and amount relative to fill light establishes the mood of the illumination.

kicker = a light positioned behind the subject and off to the side opposite the key.


 

L

 

lamp = a term basically used for the light bulbs of various design, but also employed to describe the lighting instrument as a whole.

louvers = thin, parallel strips with a black finish arranged in a grid pattern that is placed in front of a soft light source.  Louvers reduce spill light and direct the light in one direction.

low key = lighting style in which the majority of a frame is composed of dark areas. Usually enhanced by dark costumes and sets. High key-to-fill lighting ratio is employed for this effect.

lumen = the light emitted by a source of power of one candela that falls on one square unit of surface at one unit of distance from the source.

luminaire = a European term for lighting instrument, used more in the theatre than in television or film.

lux = an international unit of light intensity used primarily in Europe. One lux equals one lumen per
square meter.

 

M

 


mafer clamp = an all-purpose grip clamp (cam screw tightening) that can receive a number of different mounting attachments, such as a baby stud or flex arm.

mountain leg = the leg of a three-leg stand that extends to allow the stand to remain upright on uneven ground.

 

N

 


net = a bobbinet or black net fabric on a frame, used to reduce light intensity and is available in single (half stop) or double (full-stop)

nook light =  a small, lightweight open-face fixture that typically uses a double-ended bulb and a V-shape reflector.

 

O

 


open-face light = a fixture that has no lens to focuse light, only a bulb mounted in front of a reflector.

 

P

 


PAR = a lamp that incorporates bulb, reflector, and lens into a single unit. Short for parabolic aluminized reflector. Auto headlights are PAR globes.

 

Q

 


quartz bulb = a tungsten-halogen globe. The term comes from the heat-resistant quartz glass used in this bulbs.

 

R

 


redhead = an open-faced lighting fixture, sibling of the Blondie.

reflector = any shinny surface used to bounce light – often a foil-covered board. Collapsible fabric reflectors are very handy for location shots.

rigging = positioning lamps in the studio according to the preliminary lighting plot.

rim =  a backlight that makes a rim around the head and shoulders of the subject from the perspective of the camera.

 

S

 


sandbag = a sand-filled bag used to stabilize stands and equipment by adding deadweight or counterweight.

scoop = a studio lamp of a soft, wide, round pattern.

scrim = a circle of wire mesh, which slides into the ears in front of a fixture and reduces the intensity of the light, without changing the color temperature.

shutters = venetian blind-like metal slats that are mounted on a fixture in place of barn doors for use as a douser.

silk = silk fabric used to soften and cut the intensity of light. It is used in all sizes.z

Sky pan = a large, soft light fixture used for general fill, is a nonfocusable studio lamp, providing illumination over a broad area, such as set backdrops.

snoot = a black metal cylinder or cone mounted on the ears of a fixture to narrow the beam.

soft box = a cloth and wire umbrella-like contraption that holds a large sheet of diffusion material in front of an instrument.

soft light = a type of open-faced light in which the globe (usually a quartz tube) is hidden in the base and bounced outward off a curved white reflector. No direct light is used. The large aperture and reflected light creates light with soft shadows that is often used as a fill light.

space light = a large silked cylinder that hangs above the set to create soft ambient illumination.

spill = the light that squirts where you don’t want it.square wave = a type of AC created by an electronic ballast that renders HMI lights flicker free.

spot = a beam focused into a narrow, relatively strong beam of light.

 

T

 


talent = on-camera people or animals, usually actors, not necessarily talented ones.

tilt = the vertical rotation of a camera on tripod.

top light = a light that shines directly down on the subject.

tungsten light = light generated by an incandescent lamp with a tungsten filament.

 

V

 


volt = a measure of electrical energy (V), describing the electrical potential, or difference between positive and negative.

 

W

 


watt = a measure of power (W).

wrap = the process of taking down lights and coiling table cable that begins after the last shot of the day has been completed successfully.

Let There Be Light – Four Common Types of Film Lights

posted May 2, 2017, 7:32 AM by Shayne L. van Vlerken

lights

Beyond the camera and lens, the most important technical and creative skill you can have is learning to use and shape light. A good place to start is knowing the tools you have at your disposal.

Know your fixtures

Before we get into the types of film lights, let’s take a quick look at the two most common types of fixtures.

Arri_800w_2_Head_Kit_RedheadOpen Faced

An open faced lighting fixture is used to create hard light that casts hard shadows. It is not much more than a housing and reflector for the bulb, and provides nothing in between the bulb and the subject.

The commonly known 800W “Redhead” and 2000W “Blonde” are examples of open faced video lights.

Arri_Junior_650w_Fresnel_Tungsten_2Fresnel

A Fresnel lens is a special type of lens that is divided into concentric circles, resulting in a much thinner lens than a conventional lens of the same power. This lens evens out the light and allows for the beam to be varied from flood to spot by changing the distance between the lamp/reflector unit and the lens.

Practicals

A practical light is considered any light source that will appear in the scene such as a table lamp, any visible interior light sources, even a hand held flashlight. Often existing bulbs are swapped out for those of different wattage or color temperature depending on the needed effect and desired contrast ratios within the scene.

Performance Factors

CRI

CRI stands for Color Rendering Index. It refers to the ability of a light source to properly and faithfully reveal the color of an object compared to an ideal or natural light source. The highest possible CRI is 100 and is attributed to a perfect black body (a tungsten light source is a perfect black body, as is the sun).

Color Temperature

Color temperature refers to the “color” of white light emitted by a light source based on that radiated by a perfect black body at a given temperature measured in degrees Kelvin.

White light can be warm (yellow/orange) or cool (blue) and our eyes automatically adjust. However, the color temperature of light sources and especially the mixing of different color temperatures becomes very important when designing film lighting.

Temperature Source

1,700 K: Match flame
1,850 K: Candle flame, sunset/sunrise
2,700–3,300 K: Incandescent lamps
4,100–4,150 K: Moonlight
5,000 K: Horizon daylight
5,500–6,000 K: Vertical daylight
6,500 K: Daylight, overcast
15,000–27,000 K Clear blue poleward sky

Know your light sources

Tungsten (Quartz Halogen/Tungsten Halogen)

Tungsten light sources are basically related to the same type of incandescent filament bulbs which until recently were common in homes and offices everywhere.

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The key difference is that these use bulbs that take advantage of what is known as the halogen cycle. The pressurized halogen gas inside the bulb helps to redeposit evaporated tungsten metal back onto the filament. The glass bulb is made from a much stronger quartz or aluminosilicate glass. The lamps operate at a higher temperature than normal incandescent tungsten bulbs, and so they can achieve a higher color temperature, and higher luminous efficiency. They naturally produce a warm light, but blue color correction gels can be used to simulate daylight.

Tungsten lighting fixtures can be open faced or Fresnel up to about 20kW in power and are dimmable. They produce a continuous spectrum of light from near ultraviolet to infrared, producing near perfect color rendition.

When dimmed tungsten lights become warmer in color, so gels are needed to correct the color temperature.

Uses

Tungsten lighting is usually used to light interiors as it matches the warm light associated with domestic incandescent lighting.

Advantages

Near perfect color rendition
Low cost
Does not use mercury like CFLs (fluorescent) or mercury vapor lights
Better color temperature than standard tungsten
Longer life than a conventional incandescent
Instant on to full brightness, no warm up time, and it is dimmable 

Disadvantages

Extremely hot
High power requirement
The lamp is sensitive to oils and cannot be touched
The bulb is capable of blowing and sending hot glass shards outward. A screen or layer of glass on the outside of the lamp can protect users.

HMI

m-series_11

HMI stands for Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide and is a metal-halide gas discharge medium arc-length lamp.

A HMI bulb contains mercury vapor mixed with metal halides. An electrical arc between two electrodes excites the mercury vapor and metal halides resulting in a very high light output and luminous efficiency. HMI lamps are capable of between 85 and 108 lumens per watt, up to four times that of conventional incandescent lamps.

The specific mix of gases in a HMI bulb is designed to emit a 6000K color temperature light, closely matching natural sunlight. Electronic ballasts produce a flicker free light due to their very high frequency operation. Pulse width modulation can be used to dim HMI lights.

Uses

HMI’s are often used when high output is required and when recreating or augmenting sunlight shining into interiors, or for exterior lighting. Powerful HMI’s can be used to light large areas.

Advantages

Very high light output
Higher efficiency than incandescent lamps
High color temperature

Disadvantages

Relatively high cost, but this is balanced out by increased output
High power requirement
Requires an external ballast for arc ignition (up to 70,000 volts)
Dimming is possible only to about 50% and the color temperature increases in conjunction with dimming, thus creating a bluer light
If dropped while lit an HMI bulb can explode releasing super hot quartz glass and mercury vapor

Fluorescent 

kino_4_tubos_060

A fluorescent lamp uses the excitement of low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultra-violet light, in turn causing a phosphor coating on the inside of the glass tube to glow giving off light in the visible spectrum.

A fluorescent light is much more efficient than an incandescent light, and is capable of generating up to 100 lumens per watt, similar to the output of HMI.

The spectrum of light emitted is different to an incandescent source and depends on the mix of phosphors used. However a CRI up to 99 can be achieved. The color temperature of a fluorescent can vary also from 2700K to 6500K depending on the phosphor mix.

Uses 

kino_4

Fluorescent film lighting is most often used in fixtures containing banks of tubes. These tubes are normally either tungsten or daylight color balanced, or the tubes can be mixed within the fixture to vary the overall color mix of the light. They produce a soft and even light and can be used in relative close proximity to the subject. Fluorescent lighting is often used to light interiors and has the advantage of being more compact and cooler in operation than tungsten or HMI lighting.

Advantages

High efficiency
Low power requirement
Low cost
Long lamp life
Cool
Capable of soft even lighting over a large area
Lightweight

 Disadvantages

Flicker can be a problem with domestic fluorescent installations not intended for photographic use. Those designed for film use have electronic ballasts and produce flicker free light.

Fluorescent lights for film use have a high CRI, however the use of domestic tubes may have a far lower CRI and poor color rendition.

LED

led_cu

LED stands for light emitting diode and is a solid-state semiconductor device. Only recently, LED’s of sufficient power have become available to make practical LED film lighting possible. LED’s are extremely efficient but are still limited in overall light output when compared to any of the other light sources.

LED’s are by nature monochromatic, producing only a single wavelength of light. So the challenge of LED lighting has been in creating a full spectrum white light. This can be done in two ways, either by combining the light of red, green and blue emitting LED’s, or with white LED’s whereby the visible white light is actually created by phosphors that are excited by an ultra-violet emitting LED.

LED lights can be daylight or tungsten balanced, sometimes switchable or having variable color temperature. Some have variable color through the entire RGB spectrum, which is something not possible with any other lighting technology. The CRI rating of LED lighting can be over 90.

arri_553506dt_l7_dt_tunable_daylight_led_1015014

Uses

LED’s are becoming more and more common on film sets. They can easily be battery powered making them very portable and requiring no separate ballasts or heavy cabling. Panels made from LED lights can be small and compact, or large for a variety of situations.

LED’s are also powering more traditional Fresnel style lamp heads such as the Arri L-series. Overall power outputs are on the rise, which is good news.

Advantages

Soft, even lighting
Pure light without UV-artifacts
High efficiency
Low power consumption, can be battery powered
Excellent dimming by means of pulse width modulation control
Long lifespan
Environmentally friendly
Insensitive to shock
No risk of explosion

Disadvantages

High cost. LED’s are currently still expensive for their total light output.

Luminous Efficiency Compared

Tungsten Quartz Halogen:   Up to +/- 35lm/W
HMI:                                        Up to +/- 115lm/W
Fluorescent:                           Up to +/- 100lm/W
LED:                                        Up to +/- 150lm/W

There is no Winner

When all is said and done, all of these lights have a specific purpose, and you’re likely to see them all on any film set. Not one of these lights can be used for every purpose and any lighting kit list would be severely compromised if any of these were missing.

m-series_07

Big HMI’s are going nowhere. When you need to manufacture sunlight, the only way to do it is with big power hungry HMI’s. There is simply no other way to generate that amount of light. Yes, this means generator trucks and added crew, but when it comes to lighting big exteriors none of this is about to change. Even on a conservative job I would suggest having a 2K and 5K HMI available.

Tungsten light is cheap and is still the workhorse of interior lighting. LED Fresnel technology may at some point reach a practical equivalence but even with Arri’s most powerful L-series, it’s not going to replace the medium to high output Tungsten lamp heads soon.

inherent-vice-truecolor-hs

LED’s are also a permanent addition to the lighting department. For space restricted setups and the sheer portability that battery power affords these lights have become indispensible.

Fluorescents provide a lovely soft even light. They offer higher output than LED panels and can be larger in size, although LED panels can of course be tiled. Fluorescents are also very cost effective.

That covers the most common types of film lighting, but it is only the beginning of the story. Creating light is one thing, but shaping and controlling it is the most important skill of all to learn.


Richard Lackey

Author of this post: Richard Lackey

Richard Lackey is a cinema camera and workflow specialist, colorist (CSI member), producer & writer with 10+ years of industry experience. Richard has a passion for cinema technology & beautiful imagery.

6 Social Commerce Trends You Absolutely Must Know

posted Apr 27, 2017, 8:40 PM by Shayne L. van Vlerken   [ updated Apr 27, 2017, 8:50 PM ]

6 Social Commerce Trends You Absolutely Must Know

Feb 28, 2017 4:37 pm

Just a few decades ago, advertising only showed up in a few channels, such as television, radio, and billboards. Companies who wanted to increase sales had to shell out a significant amount of cash to get their products in front of people and there was no way they could guarantee their ads would get traction.

Social media has completely revolutionized the way commerce happens. Now masses of people spend their hours on social media platforms, consuming quantity in astronomical proportions. Companies who want to drive sales have to be innovative in their social media tactics.

Every year, these tactics change as social media platforms release new options. What trends can we expect for 2017? Here are 6 you need to know about.

 

It’s All About Those Videos

 

fb live video

Have you noticed that video is everywhere?

Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and Periscope have all released the option of live streaming video. Additionally, all these platforms offer the ability to create video ads. Even now, YouTube now has shoppable ads before videos. It also allows companies to create simple calls to action so that viewers can purchase their products.

Expect to see more companies tapping into the power of live, shoppable video even more in 2017.

Companies like QVC and the Home Shopping Network have long demonstrated that live video can generate huge amounts of sales. Now almost anyone can create live videos in which they demonstrate and sell products. Because these videos can be so highly targeted, they represent a massive opportunity for advertisers.

If the live video trend continues, we should expect to see almost every company selling their products live on social platforms.

As David Brickley said in Forbes:

You better have a FB Live strategy or you’ll be left behind. If you already have a great following on Instagram, and you don’t have an Instagram Stories strategy, it’s time to pounce while its hot.

 

Cashing In On Those Impulses

 

Marketers have long tried to tap into impulsive buying. Whether that’s encouraging consumers to call immediately or offering a limited-time discount, impulse buying has always been deeply integrated into the shopping experience.

However, impulse buying is increasing at a staggering rate with social networks.

Platforms like Instagram and Facebook allow consumers to make purchases without ever leaving the platform. And while not exactly a social platform, Amazon has one click ordering to make it all the easier to purchase without thinking.

Companies know that impulse shopping can drive a huge amount of revenue and are doing everything in their power to make it as simple as possible for customer to purchase without thinking.

In 2017 we should expect to see more and more companies implementing impulse buying options across social media platforms.

Pinterest, for example, isn’t just a place for posting recipes and interior decorating ideas. They now offer a “Buy Now” button which allows consumers to make immediate purchases from the platform. Considering that a massive amount of Pinterest users visit the site for product-related ideas, it’s a huge opportunity for marketers.

As Michael Lazar says:

The new “Buy Now” button has the ability to reach as many as 2 million target users, explains Proforma. Considering that 93% of Pinterest users plan purchases based upon the pins that they view on this site, it’s easy to understand just how powerful a tool an impulse buy button can be.

 

Can We Chat (App) About This?

 

People making purchase via social channel on iPhone

2017 is going to be the year of chat app purchasing.

Did you know that the top four chat apps collectively have more users than the top four social networks? On top of that, the Chinese messaging app WeChat has already begun allowing verified sellers to create shops within their app.

Facebook now allows advertisers to put a “Send Message” call-to-action on their ads. When the user clicks the button, it initiates a chat between the company Facebook page and the user. We should expect to see more and more companies humping on this chat bandwagon.

With the explosion of chatbots, we should also expect to see companies deployed the bots to drive sales.

Spring, a clothing retailer, has already begun implementing this:

Customers aren’t spending their time on a sprawl of apps anymore, but there’s a high concentration of engagement on Facebook Messenger,” said Spring founder Alan Tisch. “So we created an experience to fit into the natural behavior that’s already happening on the platform

Private chat channels create a much deeper sense of intimacy than a simple sales page. With more and more users communicating via chat apps, we should expect to see companies utilizing these channels to increase their revenue.

Finally, companies will begin developing more and more chat specific products, such as stickers, emojis, and gifs. This is already happening in the Apple App Store with iMessage.

 

Please Rate Me

 

yelp screenshot

More and more, ratings will be a driving factor in social media commerce.

When a person shares a rating to social media, it results in a significant spike in conversion rates. These ratings function as social proof for a company and encourage users to purchase products.

We’ve seen the power of ratings to make or break a company in dramatic fashion in recent years.

For example, when Fox News anchor Megyn Kelly released her recent autobiography, Donald Trump supporters flooded Amazon with negative reviews of the book, even if they never read it.

In 2015, users of Yelp left hundreds of negative reviews on a pizza shop after the owner said he would not serve gay weddings.

More and more, we should expect companies to specifically ask for product reviews. Even now, we see this with Uber asking all passengers to rate drivers. If a driver falls below a particular rating, they’ll receive corrective actions from the company.

Reviews drive revenue, and companies are increasingly pushing for them.

 

Let The Users Take Over

 

iPhone with instagram on the screen, held in a women's hand

More and more, companies are recognizing that content created by users can drive a huge amount of sales.

With the explosion of video and photo apps, many users are creating content that features a company’s products. Smart marketers are taking this user-created content and promoting it to drive sales.

Marketers are also inviting customers to participate in designing products and ads, such as when Doritos invited fans to create their own ads for a chance at a $1,000,000 prize. This collaboration with customers develops a sense of community and often leads to higher conversion rates.

 

Influencers Are Everywhere

 

girl taking selfie of herself

Influencer marketing isn’t new. For decades, companies have paid high-profile individuals to promote their products.

What is new, however, is the proliferation of influencers on social media.

These days, it’s not incredibly difficult for a person to build up a significant following on a social media platform. Many people on YouTube, Pinterest, Instagram, and Snapchat, have thousands of followers paying close attention to their every move.

Smart marketers are approaching these influencers and paying them to show off their products. This type of native advertising resonates far more with consumers than  blatant advertisements. While not everyone will be able to command the high prices that people like Kim Kardashian do, many more people will become social media influencers in the next few years.

 

Conclusion

 

These days, it’s not enough to just have a presence on social media and occasionally share an update.

Companies who want to succeed have to craft a very specific strategy that will tap into these social media trends. They need to determine how they will implement things like live video, impulse shopping, and user-generated content.

If they don’t, they’ll quickly find themselves falling behind and with falling revenues. Make sure your company doesn’t get left behind.


Source: https://www.floship.com/social-commerce-trends/ 

Thanks to: John Hawthorne from www.connexsocial.com for the heads up.

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